The country’s major surface freshwater sources are transboundary and include 44 per cent of the Nile River Basin, which Sudan shares with 10 other countries. Many of its groundwater sources are also shared with neighbouring countries. For example, the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer is shared by Sudan, Egypt, Libya, and Chad.

Sudan has a significant share of the Red Sea with a coastline that extends for 853 km, including embayments and inlets.

The Nile River system provides 73 per cent of Sudan’s annual freshwater supplies. Based on the 1959 agreement with Egypt, Sudan receives 18.5 km³ of water per year from the Nile River as measured at Aswan in southern Egypt. A lot of surface water is lost to evaporation: the Nile River system loses 13 per cent of its flow as it passes through Sudan and the Sahara Desert.

Seasonal wadis and khors are also critical freshwater sources for Sudan. They contribute an additional 5.5 km³ of water per year. The total annual surface water available for Sudan is 26.0 km³. Natural lakes, wetlands and hafirs (water impounded in basins during rain season) are also valued as important sources of freshwater. Groundwater sources have a storage capacity of 5.6 km³ and an annual recharge of about 2.0 km³.

Groundwater sources have a storage capacity of 5.6 km3 and an annual recharge of about 2.0 km³. The Nubian aquifer and the Umm Ruwaba formation are the major groundwater sources for Sudan. An estimated 0.02 million m³ of water per day is produced from non-conventional sources, including the desalination of sea water from Sudan’s portion of the Red Sea. These non-conventional sources also include wastewater.


Sudan is home to a variety of ecosystems and habitats. There are five major ecological zones in the country, namely Desert, Semi-desert, Woodland Savanna, Flood region and Mountain vegetation.

Also important to Sudan are the agro-regions and the freshwater and marine ecosystems. The marine and coastal ecosystems have a variety of species, including sharks, fish, oysters, sea weeds, sea cucumber and turtles. As an agro-based economy, Sudan has many local cultivars of sorghum and millet, as well as several breeds of sheep, cattle, goats, and camels.

Sudan’s fauna include some endangered, rare species such as the Northern giraffe (Giraffa Camelopardalis) and the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus). Dinder National park in south is one of the largest national parks in Africa – the visitors can enjoy the presence of most of the Big Five.