Sudan’s arable land extends to 90.7 million hectares of which only about 23.5 million hectares is under cultivation. Rain-fed agriculture is practised on 12.4 million hectares, while the area under irrigation makes up only 3.9 per cent of the country’s total area. Sorghum and millet are the major crops, while sugarcane, sesame, groundnut, and cotton are among the cash crops. About 25.6 per cent of Sudan’s total land area is rangeland.

Sudan has 10% of the world’s available arable land, over 60 million hectares.

Average cereal yields are low – under 200kg/feddan – leaving a lot of room for improvement. Mechanised farming is practiced only on around 6.7 million hectares (16 million feddan), about 3.5 million hectares (8.3 million feddan) is used for irrigated farming growing mainly sugarcane, cotton, wheat, and alfalfa.